Due to widespread and increasing occurrences of obesity in many populations, weight wisdom has been developed to counteract this trend. The goal of this project is to reverse dysfunctional eating to restore health and balance in people’s lives. Weight Wisdom seeks to prevent the onset of obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. It teaches healthy food alternatives while incorporating and supporting the preparation and consumption of culturally specific ingredients and methods, including all underlying social values. Weight Wisdom hopes to achieve this by putting an end to unconscious eating habits by providing information that can help to explain not only what is the true pleasure in eating, but also what is real joy in life.
Justification of the Issues
The aim of Weight Wisdom is to provide an alternate view of the body and the purpose of eating in order to prevent or reverse the onset of obesity and its associated diseases. In order to survive, all living things must eat. Behaviors that enhance survival, in my opinion, are reinforced in our perceptions and emotions as pleasurable and satisfying. I believe no one does anything again and again without receiving some kind of benefit, and this is a consequence of the inherent intelligence that is already programmed into every cell of life. Behaviors, which enhance survival including procreation, are “rewarded” with pleasure. This is merely Nature’s way of ensuring the continuance of life itself. However this kind of pleasure, in my opinion is related to optimal functioning and the efficiency of a healthy body. It is the intelligence of the Universe functioning in each of our cells. Survival related pleasure is closely related to the experience of emotional joy, which is also felt in relation to survival.
I believe that there is a component to the human experience that exceeds the physical echelon of existence. My sense of spirituality is deeply connected to my sense of I-ness and also rewards me with pleasure when I feel that I am living my life with purpose, and behaving from the intent of Love. It is therefore very easy to understand how food pleasure can be mistaken for Love and emotional happiness. Happiness is essentially felt in the same way, even if it is derived from different sources. Although we tend to view our bodies as solid, the truth is that we are composed of rivers of intelligence, information and energy. Heraclitus (around 500 BC), an ancient Greek philosopher, in his famous sentence has I believe, described our nature: “You cannot step twice into the same river, for new water is always flowing in” (Knieram, 2010). Everything is constantly renewing and changing, and doing so effortlessly, when the body is enjoying balance.
On the other hand, according to According to Holm, J., Holm N., Poltavski, D., & McDonald, L. (2010), behavioral risk factors associated with obesity include hypertension, heart disease, type-II diabetes, and many other ill-begotten states. Health is a function of the need to survive. From a mental health perspective I think it is very interesting that when survival is threatened, and our bodies are not operating optimally, we have emotional responses as well as physical and will feel sad. Additionally, obesity is now associated with several developmental factors, emotionally and physically, including the development of depression, the act of isolating, and low self-esteem (Cicchetti & Toth (1995). Examination of the relationship between obesity and depression and the identification of possible etiological factors that contribute to the development of depression, are critical to the development of appropriate interventions. Browning (2009) observed: “Despite significant efforts, obesity continues to be a major public health problem, and there are few effective strategies for its prevention” (p.1).
Weight wisdom is different in that the lesson is that by learning the true nature of our bodies needs, inherent wisdom, and the true nature of the body. Seeing the body through an electron microscope, it is mostly empty space. The body is at the same time empty space and intelligence. So what is the etiology of and why do some people eat to the point of extinction? What is responsible for this irresponsible and addictive behavior? Why do 98% of all weight loss (Report of the Surgeon General, Jan 11, 2007) programs fail? One of the goals of Weight Wisdom is to answer these questions with concepts about the true nature of body/mind functioning and natural intelligence where the body is not so much a thing as it is a process. Weight Wisdom exposes the limits of materialism (in fact the raw material of the body is nonmaterial) and instead focuses on the body’s intelligence. Once the true character of the body and the true nature of the mind are understood, this knowledge has a profound effect on how one behaves, including in relation to weight.
Weight Wisdom is for anyone who sincerely wants to understand how to make positive, responsible lifestyle changes, the consequences of which include attaining proper weight and the associated positive benefits this can bring as a consequence. Weight Wisdom teaches individuals and or groups how to incorporate the body’s metabolic wisdom with behaviors and eating habits that enhance and support natural and necessary functions in order to achieve optimal health. Edwards & Patchell (2010) have stated: “Food is more than sustenance to put into the body (p.32).
There are many things people simply cannot control; But we can control what we eat. In my opinion, we do much of what we do outside of our awareness, which means that we do things automatically, or, without awareness. What we do with awareness is a choice. Awareness can help us to know how we feel and other internal states, how we behave, what kind of situations we attract, and how we perceive events. Without awareness, as far as we are concerned, nothing could exist. Some amount of awareness must be present in order to participate in our perceptions. If we do not engage in our consciousness, and become accountable to our experiences, many moments of our lives will pass unnoticed, and out of reach. The ability to observe one self as one creates awareness, merely by participating and/or showing up in the act of perception, leads to an understanding of how we do what we do and the consequences of our choices.
When we hear the word intelligence, we are usually referring to the intellect and its functions. The kind of intelligence that weight Wisdom is anchored in is not simply in the head. This intelligence is evident at the cellular level, which regulates essential functions with perfect flow, exchange and precision. The body is like a river of information exchanging molecules in perfect symmetry, at precisely the moment that it is needed in perfect quantities millions of times over, every moment. The body’s intelligence regulates essential functions throughout the entire body, not just the mind. While all the expressions of intelligence can be located, intelligence itself cannot. In my opinion, we are crude to suppose that intelligence operates from within the mind alone. The intelligence of our bodies is the intelligence of life itself, seeking to survive. In this sense, life longs to live and the same infinite intelligence is present and expressed in every cell of our minds and bodies. Life is connected and flowing through us, and so we are an ever-changing process, and not just some fixed or objectified object.
ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH
Issues of weight and health are more complex than simply consuming fewer calories or switching from butter to margarine (neither of which would I ever recommend). Further, Edwards & Patchell (2010) have stated: “Food is more than sustenance to put into the body” (p.32). Key components of the prevention program Weight Wisdom are that it will be community based and geared to an age group which ranges from elementary school aged children to adults, with emphasis on nutrition and culture-specific culinary traditions.
The most important consideration is to be in control of your body and choices. Kadden, 2001; Kotler, Boudreau, & Devlin, 2003, Toneatto, 2005; Toneatto & Ladoceur, 2003 (as cited in Stephens and Smith (2009) indicate that: “cognitive and behavioral interventions combine the didactic method of psychoeducational groups with systematic training” (p.227). By focusing exclusively on cognition, behaviors that contribute to the issue, which in this case is unhealthy and inappropriate eating habits that contribute to chronic health problems, can be intervened and restructured with methods derived from cognitive–behavior theories. Dieting, by restricting food intake and using resistance are forms of stress and will work in the short run but in effect will cause more harm by the amount of stress that is generated. Stress and worry will actually block the body’s ability to metabolize food for energy, which cancels any benefits the diet may have had. For every state of consciousness there is a corresponding state of physiology. If I have hostile thoughts it is expressed facially, reflected in my mood, and how I feel physically because the cells of my body are registering this regulation of my emotions and responding. Seeman (as cited in Suarez, 2006) recalls: “A previous study conducted in our laboratory has shown that CMHO score is positively associated with total testosterone in men (Suarez, Kuhn, Schan- berg, Williams, & Zimmerman, 1998). There is also evidence to suggest that depression and mood disorders are associated with ovarian hormones (Seeman, 1997).
The psychophysiological connection has been studied by: Kano, Michiko; Fukudo, Shin; Tashiro, Atshushi; Tamura, Daisaku; Itoh, Masatoshi, Iwata, Ren,; Tashiro, Manabu; Mochizuki, Hideki; Funaki, Yoshihito; Kato, Motohisa; Michio; Yanai Kazuhiko (2004) who observed: “animal and human studies indicate that endogenous histamine is released and/or is increased under stress conditions” (p.807). The message of the journal article is simply that neurological imaging studies of neurotransmitter systems in patients with depression are adversely affected in their levels of metabolic functioning. Intelligence is operating in every cell of our bodies. Stressful thoughts are translated into neurotransmitters in the brain and when the entire neuroendocrine axis is triggered, the result is a weakening of the immune system. Raikkonen (as cited in Suarez, 2006) observed: “Increasing severity of depressive symptoms has also been associated with increasing numbers of metabolic risk factors (p.485).
Hunger is a signal from the body’s intelligence that it wishes to eat and is prepared for the metabolism of the food that is to be eaten. As with all aspects of life, people respond individually to food and of course, the experience of eating is emotionally charged and satisfying. However, simply put, I think that living in accordance with one’s biological needs instead of fighting against them is counterintuitive to eating to obesity, and in my opinion does therefore warrant an intervention and/or consultation plan in which the focus is to improve mental health.
Weight Wisdom is a consultation/intervention program designed to provide an alternate and powerful belief system in regards to weight. It is for those who recognize that change involves the mind, belief, consciousness, meaning, value, intelligence and desire as a function of self-growth, which is not necessarily of medical concern even though these are related. It is for individuals and groups who desire positive change without gimmicks. This is a program for people who are committed to self-growth and to making healthy choices. The program, Weight Wisdom involves a refreshingly real yet serious investigation into discovering one’s true beliefs and how they determine the choices and therefore consequences one creates, because weight is not something that happens to an individual.
Weight Wisdom is similar to a course, but requires an eclectic mix of education and communication styles including multiple counseling methods, all which are flexible and can be reconfigured, depending on the individual’s (or the group’s) willingness to understand the message of the program. In a sense the shift from acting without real awareness to with awareness is to surrender, to the natural intelligence of the body through a different, yet highly reality-based lens. Because of the tendency to hold onto our beliefs, whether Weight Wisdom is being presented to a large group or individuals, it is important for the counselor to establish rapport by demonstrating an unconditional interest and compassion that is uniquely tailored to the individual or group. The methods used to deliver the theory will depend on the individual or population, whose requirements will determine the direction as to how to the intervention will be executed.
Driving the multimodal approach is the desire to create rapport and establish a trusting relationship with principles of Rogerian counseling such as having an empathetic, reflective listening and probing style which can help the client to express deeper, core feelings. Once trust is established, the healing work of various counseling methods can begin. At this point the counselor wants to help the client take a somewhat objective look at his or her beliefs and values through gaining an understanding of the nature of his or her personal belief system. To this end Dogherty has suggested that: “By listening to the consultee’s perceptions of the client or program and extrapolating the pertinent information concerning the consultee’s difficulty, the consultant by indirect means can help the consultee be more objective” (p.75).
It is a challenge to provide an appropriate diagnosis in regards to changing belief’s but with education, clients like baby-boomers may respond well to Weight Wisdom’s very simple and fact based approach because this population, which is aging will want a program that delivers and is grounded in natural intelligence. There is no need to reinvent the wheel. Additionally, when the needs of the client are further understood and as the progress moves along, counseling models can be chosen. I imagine that like conversation, one model will lead to another, which means that the counselor must be very sharp, aware and competent in order to pick up on the subtle nuances and silent revelations a client can offer.
I believe it is for a counselor to be truly present for his or her clients. A counselor who allows his or her mind to wander off during a session risks endangering his or her client. The client will feel the counselor’s disconnect and may pull back. Labeling will also possibly undermine the counselor’s ability to empathize with the client. This not only undermines the effectiveness of the counseling outcome and undermines the basic development of healthy self-esteem, but also can actually lead to direct harm. (Boisvert & Faust, 2000). If the counselor misses an off-the-cuff or subtle statement, or a facial expression that is inconsistent with what is being said, or similar nuances of communication, s/he could miss information that may lead to direct harm. Worth mentioning, as in my experience there are other skills, which could reduce the possibility for iatrogenic harm. Stress reduction techniques and meditation can increase awareness, and also offer a host of other positive physical and emotional benefits and increases sensitivity.
Once a good working relationship is established, what it is that the population needs in order to meet the goals, and what the potential problems may be, will need to be defined. Once the issue(s) has been defined, the consultant must choose a consultation approach that is appropriate for the setting and most effectively addresses the problem. In order to be ready for my client’s changing needs Dogherty (2008) suggests: “The consultant should have a system to anticipate what is likely to happen in each consultation situation and to identify effective strategies with which to approach the consultation” (p.75). Bloom (as cited in Dogherty, 2008) explains that consultation styles differ by their “level of intervention, identifiable target, and identifiable goal” (p.75) and for these reasons, Weight Wisdom is a program that uses a “client-centered consultation process…where the primary goal is to develop a plan to help the client” (p.75).
Target Audience, Stakeholders, & Participants
Weight Wisdom, as I have mentioned is really for anyone who wants to learn how to create lasting change emotionally and physically. According to Stringer (2007) “In the early stages of a research project, it is important for facilitators to establish contact with all stakeholder groups as quickly as possible” (p.42). Stakeholders are individuals in the population who have a vested interest in the success of the program and its participants. It utilizes a client centered consultation approach that is appropriate for groups and/or individuals. Stringer observed: “In action research, individuals or groups share similar sets of attributes and examines the extent to which the individual or group is affected by the problem or issue of interest…Social mapping processes can help researchers identify all groups and subgroups affected by the issue so they can identify the stakeholders in the setting” (pp.42-45). Needless to say, I was relieved to read in Lasker & Weiss (2003) that: “By involving a broad array of community stakeholders in all phases of its work, a partnership is in a better position not only to develop more effective interventions but also to sustain these interventions over time (p.130). It is clear to me that identifying and developing relationships with key stakeholders is essential to the success of a program and perhaps especially one that involves multicultural diversity. Everyone benefits from good health therefore anyone who participates in improving and creating health could be classified as primarily concerned with the issue at hand.
Data Collection and Analysis
Tests can help to complete the picture. I would provide a small series of instruments to test and measure the issues relative to the stated goal, which is to create healthy bodies and minds in individuals and groups. These instruments will be given and re-given at specific intervals to measure improvement over time. One way to prove validity of a project is to test for results. Self-assessments such as standardized personality tests give a window as to where a person or group is at, emotionally. Personality is a vague concept, however concepts such as self-esteem, perception, worldview, values and beliefs affect the way conduct our selves and our willingness to learn. Therefore by improving understanding of the individual or group the facilitator will be able to more effectively and successfully intervene. How a client feels about him or her self is subjective and can indicate many factors, which will affect his or her willingness to make necessary personal change.
Depression measurements such as the Beck Depression Inventory can be administered and evaluated by a competent expert in tests and measurement and also re-given at specific intervals over time. Weight Wisdom is not a program that has time boundaries. Its message is for a lifetime and so are its methods. As physical health improves, my prediction is that emotional health will follow because I believe that health and happiness are intimately related.
Physically, traditional weight measurements and a BMI calculator will be employed at intervals to measure the progress of weight loss, and fat to muscle ratios.
Additionally, severity of disease measurements will be very important in that as health improves, clients will find that their need for certain medications may change or even disappear. This is a self-test and also will be for the purpose of demonstrating progress as a result of the program.
Considering that Weight Wisdom is a completely voluntary course, and can only be delivered by invitation in the form of a consultation, presentation, or one’s own desire to purchase it for home use, I feel that a “needs assessment” would be redundant, on this level of its execution.
One of the data methods, I would employ is referred to on the course DVD as “preliminary data collection”. This will occur via a form, which could be fairly easily filled-out by the participant(s) and thus enable the consultant to begin the process of creating measurements. This form may have questions asking clients, for example, to rate what is the main issue in regards to his/her weight, frequency of and eating habits, exercise or no, favorite foods, times when most food is consumed, general behaviors and attitudes about food, the weight and height of the individual, sex and age, and so on. This would provide the administrator with a look at, as Dr Kiselica described: “where the clients are right now” (Laureate). This form could later be compared with other questionnaires, which would be administered, perhaps every three months. Eventually, the client’s progress may be measured and demonstrated by comparing and tracking the development of the answers over time. Perhaps the results could be presented on a graph, illustrating his/her/their physical and emotional development, quantitatively and qualitatively.
If I wanted funding for Weight Wisdom I would need to demonstrate that it could have success and effectiveness at improving individual health, weight and wellbeing as well as other directly related health benefits. In order to make W.W. available through funding, I think that small target groups like I describe above would be a good source for providing the necessary data in order to demonstrate W.W.’s potential to create wellbeing and health. Dr. Kiselica mentions in our course DVD that collecting at the beginning, middle and end of the study is vital for analyzing and documentation over time which helps counselors get the necessary funding that is required as many institutions require this, including insurance organizations and government funding programs.
Another form of data collection would come from the administrator of the program. Observations enable researchers to record important details that become the basis for formulating descriptions from which stake holding groups produce their accounts. Although field notes are commonly used for observations, videotapes and photographs may also provide a powerful record of events and activities (Stringer, 2007). Of course, in order to gather the data, signed consent forms will be necessary critical in order to effectively implement the program. The observation will be cost effective, but: bias, prejudice, racial concerns, traditional values or standards, cultural differences, and stereotypical attitudes will have to be carefully considered in the evaluation of the observational data.
Stringer (2007) explains: “Analysis is the process of distilling large quantities of information to uncover significant features and elements that are embedded in the data” (p.95). The features and elements clarify the significant issues for stakeholders so that they can understand what is happening and the nature of the issue (Stringer, 2007). Hopefully the results of good analysis will provide and clarify new ways of considering and conceptualizing the existence of the issue. Therefore, the researcher’s task is to interpret and re-frame the factors that have contributed to the development and perhaps pathology of the issue. Another way of putting this which is how I would phrase myself within the philosophy of Weight Wisdom would be to say analysis raises awareness about the beliefs that our behavior enforces each and every day. Everything that I do is done because I believe that it will result in something positive for me. In other words if you want to know what a person really believes look at his or her behavior, do not listen to their words exclusively. Because everything anyone can do, in my opinion, is an expression of what he or she believes. Behavior that does not back-up beliefs always feels wrong and/or just plain icky.
That said, and after the questionnaires (data analysis) are collected, how will my participants’ answers help me to show the stakeholders the features and elements that are the most potent and influencing in the creation and persistence of the stated issue? This researcher’s task will be to expose false beliefs about food in general and to help people to make decisions within their awareness. Many of the things we do, we do because we are merely unconsciously acting out memories and behaving as if we are on automatic pilot. A very important component of Weight Wisdom is to increase awareness and eventually accountability throughout the day’s activities. For example one of the questions on my form would be to ask how often do you eat while the television is on? How often do you eat on the go? For someone who would score highly on these and related questions, my job would be to suggest the need to raise food and eating awareness by becoming fully engaged in the meal. I would interpret and distill this information in a way that perhaps had not been considered before because often people do not even realize all the things that get done without really paying true attention. For someone who frequently eats in this way, at first, I would make a gentle suggestion that s/he have at least two meals that week without TV or any other distracters. (I tell my kids that for one thing eating is the act of putting an object into your body and that that is a very important act to pay attention to. We should be as aware of eating as we are receiving a medical shot.)
What we put into our mouths stops being the other, because food is assimilated and its various components separate and travel to where our bodies tell them to go. You are what you eat. This is a very good reason to start paying attention to what we eat. I believe that food should be ingested and prepared with some degree of love and gratitude because the entire process is really very amazing when you think of it. Therefore I would interpret multitasking around food to be a sign of making choices outside of awareness and conscious choice. Stringer (2007) observed: “ Interpretive activity exposes the conceptual structures and pragmatic working theories that people use to explain their conduct” (p.96).
Weight Wisdom hopes to expose and to demonstrate the need and benefits to making decisions within one’s awareness. How many times do you say “yippy” before cutting open a delicious mango? There’s just something about gratitude and happiness towards what we are eating that makes food seem even tastier and the experience more pleasurable. I believe increasing awareness also increases the quality that one experiences. Being happy and aware while eating also reduces the internal chemical soup of stress, and the result of this is that more nutrition can absorbed by the body, increasing the potential for health and earlier satiation.
For some this may seem like a complex or abstract theory, but in my opinion the ingredients list on a box of “hamburger helper” is far more complex than simply paying attention ever will be. Stringer warns of being too abstract and “turning people off” but this program is for people who are ready to do something different and truly want to be committed to self-growth. The only true work is related to resistance to changing beliefs. In W.W there is no re-inventing of the wheel; it is just about getting real.
Following along with Stringer’s “Procedures for Analysis”, W.W. participants would normally already have created the purpose of the meeting. S/he may even be at “rock bottom”. S/he is hoping to find a sensible and sustainable way to make positive personal change. These participants would already have tried diets, and perhaps even surgeries, only to find that eventually they return to their previous dysfunctional behaviors. Like I have said, W.W. is really more for those who have come to the realization that something deeper is undermining his or her success, because nothing before that s/he has tried has ever provided long-term change or the skills and s/he is ready to make a lasting commitment to personal change. At each meeting I would provide information and related literature on an easily viewed side table such as a booklet explaining and outlining the foundational philosophy of W.W. and its potential benefits. I am considering designing a stack of cards with individual inspirational and awareness increasing thoughts and affirmations with a recipe on the reverse. —Or something like that. The participants would be invited to discuss their prior experiences and issues in regards to weight. “They should identify converging and diverging perspectives and the most important issues” (Stringer, 2007). All of the issues need to be distinguished and given separate categories, thus providing the information necessary to determine future actions (Stringer, 2007).
Enrichment could be given by administering selective psychological tests aimed to expose how psychosocial influencers and/or histories may influence beliefs, for the purpose of comparative analysis. Correlation and trends and how these affect one’s level of awareness could be useful for the individual’s insight and to the counselor, I feel, because it is very important to be aware of all the influencing elements within a person’s belief system in order to make changes. It is kind of like needing to know exactly where you are (Cape Cod) in order to figure out the best route to travel to where you want to be (Florida). Psychological tests may help to pinpoint influencers, which can then be considered when modifying the action plan.
Lasker & Weiss (2003) have observed: “The people and organizations involved in a partnership are the building blocks of synergy” (p. 124). Aside from synergy being a description for energies, which work together harmoniously and symbiotically. Another way of describing synergy is to say that because of the above, and because things seem to flow unimpeded, meaning that the observer of the symmetry is “on track” in terms of life path and personal balance. Forward motion with little to no resistance is also indicative of strength. The people and the organizations represent individuals who potentially have very diverse life experiences. “This manifestation of synergy –strengthened thinking—is important because individuals and organizations, on their own, often have imperfect or incomplete information” (p.125).
Integration of multiple personalities can result in, according to Stringer “the development of a vision” and or goal. However in order to travel from one place to another even ideologically, one must understand and know exactly where one is, in order to know how to best navigate the path to the goal. By promoting open discourse between people who have different backgrounds “the group as a whole can overcome individual problems” (Lasker & Weiss, 2003). Additionally, according to Lasker & Weiss (2003) such variety can result in the creation of a more vibrant, appropriate and resourceful approach. Together, according to Lasker & Weiss, 2003): “participants can obtain more accurate information, formulate a bigger picture, and through their diversity, be able to offer more helpful and informed perspectives while gaining and offering a rich understanding of local mores and issues” (p.125).
Lasker & Weiss (2003) point to another challenge in creating partnerships. People identify with their “roles” and in order to carry out a community wide program, some leaders will need to adjust implementation of their leadership and management skills. The problem is that while community partnerships may create more synergy (because of the targeted and appropriate local applications) they may not be used to participation without control. Lasker & Weiss (2003) observed, “In addition, it is not possible to achieve the significant breakthroughs that are needed to address complex and interrelated problems if only one professional paradigm is used or other consequential constrained or limited actions” (p.136).
Therefore, the first element that I believe to be crucial to planning is to gain a clear perspective of the various educational, physical, cultural, experiential and other distinguishing factors, which help to define a population. In other words, we first have to establish exactly where it is that we are before we can map our journey.
The second element I believe essential to effective planning is for the stakeholders and all participants to agree on how the plan will be effectively implemented while knowing that some people will have taken on a position of control because, according to Lasker & Weiss (2003) “It is not possible to assure that community stakeholders will have real influence” (p.135).
One of Weight Wisdom’s goals is to create many “ah ha” moments. The best way to stimulate these is to learn how to most effectively communicate at the level of the audience. Another goal is to instill a desire to maintain health and wellbeing. This I hope to achieve through W.W. simply by creating results, which will empowering to individuals and be a self-propelling trend. One of the challenges I expect to address helping individuals who insist that they do want to create positive change within themselves is the dropout rate. I do not think this program is for the kind of person who wants a meal plan or personal trainer. Weight Wisdom is for people who are seeking to find out what it is he/she believes that is preventing him or her from moving forward in this life. W.W. Is not about gimmicks instead it is about learning how to want food sources that are of benefit to the health of the body. One way to screen people for success could involve a combination of interviewing and psychological testing; Interviewers could look for clues, for example that may indicate internal conflict.
Another challenge I may encounter will be that the stakeholders themselves may not be willing to participate in the degree of accountability this program requires. For example, he head nurse at a local school could potentially be a stakeholder in the implementation of Weight Wisdom because s/he wants the student body to be well. However, W.W. is only effective is one is willing to uncover the beliefs that motivate and drive behavior. When the stakeholders themselves are as eligible for a program, the secondary challenge to this challenge will be to screen for stakeholders who are committed to self-growth. Again with further psychological testing and interviewing, the appropriateness of the stakeholder could be determined quicker and more accurately. To this end Lasker & Weiss (2003) observed, “Clearly, the range of community stakeholders plays a key role in determining in determining the amount of synergy that a partnership can (p.126).
Social Change Implications
Strict dieting, in the sense of counting calories and severely resisting the intake of food is senseless and can actually cause weight gain. Only about 20% of people who lose weight (Surgeon General) through dieting are able to keep it off for at least a year. The effect on health of losing and regaining pounds is worse than being overweight in the first place. Diets that impose stress on physiology by cutting off the natural inclinations of the body create sensations of hunger and slowed metabolisms.
I believe health is our natural state. The World Health Organization has defined health as the state of perfect physical, mental, and social well-being. Additionally, to this I would add: spiritual well-being, which to me is a state in which a person feels at every moment of living, a joy and zest for life, a sense of fulfillment, and an awareness of harmony and balance with the world around him or her.
As far as social change implications are concerned, the economic and policy implications alone are huge. A healthy system operates functionally on all levels and therefore affects all levels of life socially and personally. If each and every individual of a society enjoyed the creation and sensations of good health the entire society would change and eventually life itself, as we know it.
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